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Music Education is broadly of two types: Private Education System and Institutional Education System.
Private Education System or the ‘Guru-shishya parampara’ as it is known in India, is prevailing from the vedic period till date.
Here, the master or the teacher or the guru plays a very important role. As the disciple or the student or the shishya is fully dependent on what he teaches, the guru should be thorough in his knowledge. He has to be very loyal, disciplined and understanding in shouldering his responsibilities. He should never take undue advantage of his authority. The guru has to be broad minded and not prejudiced with other styles and artists. The guru should be keen to teach and the shishya keen to learn. An ideal guru-shishya relationship is like a father and son relationship.

The main advantages of such education system are:

1.As it is a one-to-one relation the guru can judge the potential of a shishya and teach him likewise. So each student can be taught the best.
2.It is easier for the guru to teach the knacks of his style to the student, due to a close relation.
3.The obligation being on personal level the student is obliged to work hard.
4.As this system is not exam oriented, music is taught and absorbed as a performing art and not from the exam point of view. Usually, good performers come up from such education style.
5.A guru can devote as much time as he likes for teaching.
6.Due to a very close and personal relation, the student gets a wide exposure in the field of music. He develops good rapport with his guru’s colleagues and other welknown artists.
7.As a performing artist, the student gets the scope of being known to people, prior to his performances.
Yet, this system of education system has its own limitations and disadvantages. The main disadvantages of this system prevail usually when the guru does not shoulder his responsibilities well.

The limitations and disadvantages are:
1.As one learns and hears from only one guru the views remain narrow.
2.There is no scope for learning different styles.
3.This is a very costly type of learning.
4.As there is no targeted date for completion of any portion or syllabus of learning, this style of learning becomes a lethargic one and can take a lot more time than needed.
5.Usually, the theory and science behind music is not taught. Musicology, history, other types of music is never taught.
6.There is no guarantee that the guru will teach his best and not waste time.
The institutional education system was started on a large scale only about a century ago. It gained popularity in recent times. Though before that institutions did prevail, it was on a very negligible scale.

The main advantages of institutional education are:
1.Time is best utilized. The syllabus is decided and the time period is also decided. So it is seen that the syllabus is completed in time.
2.As there are usually more than one teacher one gets a wider view of the music. The student can choose the best and whatever he likes from different teachers.
3.As it is a degree-oriented or exam-oriented course, a job can be achieved immediately after you get a certificate and financial income thus gaining status quite at an early stage as a performer.
4.Radios, televisions, music organizations, music recording studios, cultural directors, and critics are the jobs, which demand a certificate of music. This can be sought only through institutions.
5.This is a cheaper style of learning. The fees of institutions are usually lesser that private tuitions. So any middle class person can afford such education.
6.Institutions usually provide accompanists during teaching. So the rhythmic grasping can be achieved easily.
7.The theory of music is learnt on a deeper level than private learning.
8.Institutions usually have such a syllabus as to know music from many aspects and not only as a performing art. General awareness of the musical happenings around the country and world are a part of the syllabus.

The main disadvantages of institutional education are:
1.It is too much exam oriented. So, usually students lack the quality needed for a performer.
2.As a group of students are taught together the teaching and learning can never become perfect. This is because the learning potentials of each student differ.
3.As this is an exam and certificate oriented teaching system, people are tended on commercialization of music. The essence of music as an art is lost. This is a very outstanding drawback for getting good quality of music.

In today’s world, cultures are coming closer and world is becoming smaller. To my opinion in today’s urban life style a combination of private and institutional education should be adopted whereby we get the advantages of both and the disadvantages of both systems can be ruled out.